The title Commonwealth of Australia was given to the British unity of colonies at the dawn of the 20th century. Under this name, we mean the continent itself, the Tasmania Island and a good number of smaller and bigger islands around the continent. Many of the islands are uninhabited till nowadays and some of them are covered with polar ice.
The modern history of Australia, when the continent has become recognized to the rest of the world, started with its opening by British Royal sails led by Capitan James Cook in 1770. Until that time Australia was populated by indigenous aborigines and settlers from the local islands. Since the discovery, it was colonized mostly by the British, Scotts and Irish frontiersmen who had founded the first settlements on the cost. Later colonists from Germany, Italy, India, and China came. Now, people from over 140 world’s countries live in Australia.
Settlers usually took the coastal areas, never going deep inside the continent. Even today the Australian population is spread along the shore and concentrated around the big cities. The reason is that the inland of the mainland is covered with deserts, has a lack of water and it is almost impossible to be industrialized. Thus, being such a big country Australia is not densely and highly populated.
Australia can boast of the pure charming landscapes created by mesmerizing reefs and sunlit beeches. Its climate is generally warm, changing from devastative hot and arid to very rainy and warm. The country is famous for a numerous quantity of rare animals and plants which exist nowhere else on the globe. For centuries it’s been known for its prosperous farming traditions (especially for sheep cheese and wool), fruit and corn trade.
Due to the position in the southern hemisphere, the weather is opposite to the one we have. It is typical to the African and South American when summer months are December, January and February, and winter months are June, July and August.
The territory is comprised by six states, each of them having its own capital and Parliament. The capital of the whole country is Canberra. There are also two districts or specific territories – the Capital one (around Canberra) and the Northern one.
The country does not have an officially proclaimed language but its national language is English of the Australian variety, which differs greatly from the British one. Aboriginal languages are also spoken here, even in public services. Australia also has its own currency – Australian dollar.